The Indian caste based reservation system and the arguments related to it have been the subject of electoral promises, books, national debates, forum discussions and bar fights. The idea of caste based reservation system was implemented by Chatrapati Sahuji in 1901. The term was changed to “Depressed Class” in 1932 by Ambedkar and later to Scheduled Caste/Tribes” during the framing of the constitution in 1950. The idea was that a vast majority of the poor people were from the same caste group and they needed a social net so that they can be accommodated in society. It started with electoral rights first( to guarantee political representation- Poona Act ’35) and then also got deep rooted in education/job.
After independence for the growth of a nation, it was essential that people from all community are bootstrapped with the power of education so a dark nation had to be lit with providing opportunities for people of various communities. This was the primary motive of founders of our nation to give equivalent opportunities to the entire community. Enough of history, now switching over to the present.
Performance of the reservation system when compared to its presumed objectives:
Though “lower strata” term is relative, but there has been no such drastic change due to the reservation system when compared to the poverty rates. Incomes of the bottom 20% of society are relatively same as compared to the last 40 years.
There are a significant portion of upper caste (6% of national population) who are poor and do not get benefited from reservations. The cost of education is 12.5 times over the previous decade- even the cheapest institutions have five percent inflation a year.
Summing up, the cast based system has solved the purpose to a little extent for which it was made rather created divisions in society. Drawbacks of caste base reservation system are-
- It has not increased the living standard of people (income share of people).
- Education system being the backbone of the developing nation has been categorically degraded because of it. On the PISA scale, India stands on 72nd
- It has not included all the economically backward section (upper backward class has been deprived).
- It is now manipulated by the political leaders and is being used as a weapon of the minority group.
The latest highlights floated in the newspapers was the rebel of a community raising its head for the protection of their reservation rights which led to the economic hurdle. The Jaat Reservation Agitation which hampered the commuting of Indians became the pain in the neck for the political leaders and Indians. Likewise, if any other community comes up and raises its voice in favour of their rights in the form of demonstration, agitation and self-immolation, then what would be the consequences and the outcome which would be a direct threat to the Indian Economy.
When people wearing a lot of gold and still asking for reservations, then you can easily understand the future of reservations in India.
The caste based reservation system has been deep rooted in our society and which is now a part of our constitution and is unlikely to change. It has affected us, as a society and it will continue to affect the future generations to come. The reservation policy is not a problem but it requires a change instead of caste based to income based reservation.
At the time of independence, the reservation was needed for the upliftment of the minority, but now the economic development of the nation is more important and caste based reservation is a big hindrance. Reports suggest that 40% of IIT, NIT and IIM graduates search for jobs outside the country because the jobs in India are more on caste based leaving the talent behind.
Reservation, if given to talented unprivileged and physically disabled sector will not only provide them with equal opportunities but will also open opportunities for talented deprived candidates.
The upcoming youth is quite open minded/modernized in this respect and they have the power to change the nation and overcome the drawbacks of the system. Reservation system can be corrected if talented youth becomes the part of the system and then transform it to make this developing country come a step forward than the other developed nations.
Eventually, the reservation pattern should only be applicable to the handicapped, underprivileged, downtrodden and the respected senior citizens of the nation. Education System, a field that moulds and trains the future of the nation should be strictly exempted from the Reservation. The policy of Reservation is indeed a very good idea only if it is implemented properly and wisely but if undone it could lead to the discrepancies in the society.This class or the community-based reservation pattern has left a devastating deep impact on the talented general students.
The basic motto of reservation was for the unity and upliftment of the weak but not the categorization of the society. For the betterment of the Nation, Reservation Policy implementation should be balanced and harmonize the society.